Old Testament Commentary Picks

A while back now, I created a list of my choices for the best New Testament commentaries by book. I tried to limit selections to one commentary per New Testament book. My Old Testament commentary collection is not as extensive (ironically I spent far more time on the Old Testament in my studies, but the vast majority of my preaching in based in the New Testament), but here are my choices for the best Old Testament commentary options. As with the New Testament, if you don’t see your preferred choice here, it may be because I don’t own it, and I’m always open to recommendations. I have tried to, wherever possible, limit my selection to one or at most two, though there are exceptions. For multiple options, see my list here.

Genesis: For the best all-around, most balanced, reader-friendly, and reliable commentary, I’d go with Victor Hamilton’s 2 volumes in the NICOT series.

Exodus: Victor Hamilton has also written an outstanding commentary on Exodus. This stand alone commentary (Exodus: An Exegetical Commentary) features Hamilton’s own translation, extensive textual notes, and then his interpretation of paragraph sized chunks. Very user-friendly, and reliable.

Leviticus: Gordon Wenham, The Book of Leviticus (NICOT) is my first choice, though Leviticus is not a book I have studied in any considerable depth. I do have a few hesitations with this one, but commentaries on Leviticus are not typically exciting reads.

Numbers: Although the introduction is much too short, Timothy Ashley, The Book of Numbers (NICOT) is my preferred choice. The text in its final form is the focus, and source criticism, though noted, does not take up much space, whereas in other commentaries on Numbers (and the Pentateuch more generally), these discussions can become a distraction.

Deuteronomy: Peter Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy (NICOT) is where I go first, even though it’s over 40 years old, and I own more in depth options. It’s fairly succinct, without feeling like it’s lacking, as he avoids the tangents and unnecessary fluff which bog down critical commentaries. I understand a replacement volume in the series is in the works. Replacing Craigie’s is no easy task.

Joshua: With all the difficulties of the violence in Joshua, one doesn’t want commentators to tip-toe around it, or make excuses, but deal with it head on. Gordon McConville & Stephen Williams, Joshua (THOTC) is a very good option, and where I go first. The Two Horizons series is a great avenue to deal with the big questions of Joshua. Though the exposition of the text is typically brief, it does get the main points well. But in this volume, the essays in the second part which wrestle with the theological themes gives this one its real value.

Judges: Barry G. Webb, The Book of Judges (NICOT) is great in overall scholarship and composition. However, I do believe he completely mishandles the Deborah narrative, both in his exposition and in the introduction. His reading of that narrative is hindered considerably by his strong complementarian views on gender which hurts an otherwise impeccable commentary. Arguably equal to or better than Webb is Susan Niditch’s commentary (OTL). Niditch’s commentary is a bit less comprehensive than Webb, but not light on detail by any stretch.

Ruth: Ruth is one of my favourite Old Testament books, and where I first cut my teeth in Old Testament Hebrew. I preached through the book of Ruth in 2014. Two great commentaries were immensely helpful in that, and both are highly recommended. Kirsten Nielsen’s OTL volume is a bit more scholarly focused and gives more on history of interpretation, but less on theological objectives, and impact on the original audience than one gets from Katherine Doob-Sakenfeld (Interpretation). But overall both are excellent.

1 & 2 Samuel: The books of Samuel have probably occupied more of my time than any other Old Testament book. Among my favourite undergrad courses was my advanced Hebrew reading course with Keith Bodner which focused on translation of 1 Samuel. Walter Brueggemann, First and Second Samuel (Interpretation) is in my mind essential reading for understanding Samuel.

1 & 2 Kings: Simon DeVries, 1 Kings, Second Edition (WBC) and T.R. Hobbs, 2 Kings (WBC) are both in depth, scholarly treatments which I highly recommend, and where I typically go first. They are highly technical, so some knowledge of Hebrew is required. For a more non-technical commentary, I go to Richard Nelson’s commentary in the Interpretation series.

1 & 2 Chronicles: My former professor Keith Bodner is currently working on a new volume in the NICOT series, which no doubt will be excellent. Right now, Sarah Japhet’s OTL volume is my go-to; but don’t take that as her getting a consolation prize. Bodner has his work cut out for him if he wants to exceed what Japhet has done- her commentary is so comprehensive, but not dull. The textual notes and citations keep the technical stuff from bogging down the exposition.

Ezra/Nehemiah: Joseph Blenkinsopp (OTL) and H.G.M. Williamson (WBC) are both worth having, though Blenkinsopp is more user-friendly than Williamson, as the WBC format is not ideal. Blenkinsopp does have more on redaction/source criticism, and Williamson has more on linguistic stuff. Both are very technical and not for the faint of heart.

Esther: The introduction of Karen Jobes, Esther (NIVAC) alone makes this one worth its weight in gold. Jobes did her doctoral research on the Greek version of Esther, so even though she’s a New Testament/Greek scholar, she is probably the best currently active biblical scholar to write on Esther, and the results here are impeccable. Frederic Bush (WBC) on Ruth and Esther is more technical, if you’re into that level of study, and also commendable is the OTL volume by Jewish text-critical scholar Jon Levenson. But for Pastors, Jobes is where I’d suggest you start.

Job: Two volumes are worthy of note: Tremper Longman III, Job (BCOTWP) and John H. Walton, Job (NIVAC). I would recommend either without hesitation. These two gentlemen are probably the best Old Testament and Ancient Near Eastern scholars currently active in the evangelical world.

Psalms: The only commentary you will ever need on the Psalms is John Goldingay, Psalms (3 vols. BCOTWP).

Proverbs: The first commentary I go to is Roland Murphy (WBC), an expert in the Wisdom and poetry books of the OT.

Ecclesiastes: I’d also strongly recommend Peter Enns, Ecclesiastes (THOTC) which is, like the Two Horizons volume on Joshua noted above, really valuable because of the theological approach to the text in the second portion. Enns is able to draw out the real value of this book without passing over or taking lightly the very real challenges of Qohelet. That said, Roman Catholic scholar Roland Murphy (WBC) is, like his Proverbs commentary, absolutely superb, and my preferred technical commentary.

Song of Songs: Tremper Longman III (NICOT) is the typically viewed as the standard, but I’d also add the less well known and more recent volume by Richard Hess (BCOTWP) and once again Roland Murphy (Hermeneia). All three read the book as an erotic song depicting human sexuality in a very positive light, and interact frequently, and graciously with other commentators throughout history who have proposed various allegorical readings, but are also sensitive to other ancient near eastern erotic poetry and the light those texts shed on Song of Songs. They come to similar conclusions, so any will serve pastor and student/scholar well.

Isaiah: If you can go to a multi-volume set, go with Joseph Blenkinsopp’s AB. Because of its immense size and all the difficulties of textual criticism, Isaiah cannot be comprehensively treated in a single volume.

Jeremiah: I would strongly recommend Walter Brueggeman’s A Commentary on Jeremiah: Exile and Homecoming. It is not a technical commentary, but focuses on sociological and literary reading of Jeremiah in its final form, highlighting the embodiment of the pathos of Judah in slow movement towards collapse and the aftermath of Babylonian conquest. For a more traditional exegetical-critical commentary, Robert Carroll’s OTL volume is my first choice.

Lamentations: Commentaries on Lamentations alone are not exactly abundant, however, this does not mean there is a shortage of quality here. Robin Parry’s Lamentations (THOTC) and Dianne Bergant’s Lamentations (AOTC) are exceptional commentaries for pastors or students (though I think Parry’s is ever-so-slightly better). For a more scholarly option, Adele Berlin’s Old Testament Library volume is outstanding, and probably my overall favourite.

Ezekiel: There is not a book in the bible I’ve avoided the way I’ve avoided Ezekiel, so I don’t have a strong opinion on Ezekiel commentaries. But Joseph Blenkinsopp’s Interpretation volume is where I go first on the rare occasion I am in Ezekiel, usually because of an inter-textual link between the NT and Ezekiel. It is an excellent pastoral-theological commentary.

Daniel: Although the format is a bit unorthodox, John Goldingay, Daniel (WBC) is my first choice. Some conservative evangelicals have disliked his conclusions on dating and some parts of interpretation, but I find his reading to be the most plausible. A more recent, and more user-friendly option is Carol Newsom’s outstanding OTL volume.

Minor Prophets: Every series has its own way of dividing up the “minor prophets”. So instead of doing each of the 12 individually, I’ll just condense them together and make a few suggestions. J. Andrew Dearman, The Book of Hosea (NICOT) and Douglas Stuart, Hosea-Jonah (WBC) cover Hosea well, though Stuart is less strong on Joel and Obadiah than he is on Hosea, Amos, and Jonah. Leslie Allen, The Books of Joel, Obadiah, Jonah and Micah (NICOT) is excellent, and gives all four books their due. James Limburg, Jonah (OTL) contains some unique features, like an appendix on Jonah in Jewish and Christian art, and his introduction and treatment of the genre and uniqueness of Jonah among the Twelve is very insightful. John Goldingay & Pamela Scalise, Minor Prophets II (UBCS) is a great intro level commentary, which doesn’t feel like it lacks much in exegesis, even though it doesn’t cover technical or critical questions. Ralph L. Smith, Micah-Malachi (WBC) is much shorter than it’s counterpart by Douglas Stuart on Hosea-Jonah, but still a very worthy volume to have. Wilda Gafney’s Wisdom Commentary volume on Nahum, Habakkuk, and Zephaniah brings a unique feminist perspective in addition to a pastor-friendly general exposition. Mark Boda’s recent NICOT volume The Book of Zechariah is a beast of a commentary, but incredibly well done. Mignon Jacobs The Books of Haggai and Malachi (NICOT) is excellent both in its scholarship and pastoral relevance. And lastly, a great pastoral commentary on Nahum-Malachi is Elizabeth Achtemeier’s Interpretation series volume.

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